Dear Readers, Welcome to  In the Previous article, we discussed and the andtoday we will learn about Members of Solar System. All these notes are very important to the examinations like SSC, RRB etc.. it is an important topic in chemistry. all these notes help you to get a good score in your examinations. Let’s go to the article.

# MEMBERS OF SOLAR SYSTEM:

Here is the list of Members of Solar System.

## The Sun:

• The sun is at the center of the solar system.
• Its size is 13 lakh times as that of the earth.
• Its diameter is 14 lakhs km.
• It’s an ultimate source of energy of life on earth.
• It’s composed of 71% hydrogen, 26.5% of Helium and 2.5% of other elements.
• Within the sun, Hydrogen is converted to helium due to nuclear fusion releasing a tremendous amount of heat and light.
• It has a surface temperature of 5778 K or 5504.85 degrees.
• The temperature of the center is around 1.571x$10^{7}$ K or 15000000 degrees.
• Photosphere appears like a disc, radiates energy and acts as a source of energy.
• The planet travels with the sun through millions of stars in our galaxy of a speed of about 70,000 KM per hour.
• Sun is about 150 Millions of km away from the Earth.
• Light (at speed of 300000 KMP/s) takes about 8.5 Minutes to reach the earth from the sun.

## The Planets:-

• There are eight planets in the solar system.
• A ninth planet has been recently discovered by NASA named as “Carla”.

Planets are classified into following two groups inner and outer planets.

### Asteroids:

• Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System. The larger ones have also been called planetoids.
• There are millions of asteroids, many thought to be the shattered remnants of planetesimals, bodies within the young Sun’s solar nebula that never grew large enough to become planets.
• The first asteroid is discovered in 1801 named as Ceres, by “Giuseppe Piazzi“, and it was originally considered to be a new planet.
• The majority of known asteroids orbit within the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, generally in relatively low-eccentricity.This is called Asteroids belt.
• This belt is now estimated to contain between 1.1 and 1.9 million asteroids larger than 1 km.
• All these asteroids have divided the planets into two gropes those are inner and outer planets.

## Inner and Outer Planets:

INNER PLANETS

OUTER PLANETS

They include Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars.They includes Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
They are nearer to the sun.They are far away from the sun.
They have thin, rocky crust.They are all gaseous bodies.
They have amantle rich in iron and mg.Made of gases.
They have thin atmosphere.---------

Some notable facts about various Planets and satellites:

### Mercury:

• Mercury is pretty difficult to see from Eart because it keeps so close to the Sun. Even through a telescope, you can’t make out much detail, so we knew very little about Mercury.
• It is the closest planet to the sun.
• it is an extremely hot planet.
• Planet has no water on it.
• Mercury planet has no gasses like CO2, N2, H2, and O2. which can act as building blocks of life.

### Venus:

• It was the second planet in distance from the sun.
• It is also known as “brightest planet“, “evening star” as well as “morning star“.
• Venus has no water on it, There is no sufficient oxygen on the venus.
• Venus is surrounded by a thick cloud cover, hence known as the “veiled Planet”.
• It also rotates clockwise like Uranus.

### Earth:

• Earth is a largest of the inner planet.
• The earth is 23 1/2 degrees tilted on its axis and this makes 66 1/2 degrees angle.
• It takes 23 hours 56 minutes 4.041 seconds to rotates on its axis.
• It takes 365 days, hours and 48 minutes to revolve around the Sun.
• Earth is known as the “watery planet” or the ” Blue Planet” presence of huge amount of water on it.
• It has a large quantity of oxygen which supports life.

### The moon:

• Moon is the only satellite of the earth.
• The diameter of 3475 km and its circumference is 10864 km while its orbit is elliptical.
• The maximum distance of the moon from the earth is 406000 km and the minimum distance is 364000 km.
• It takes 27 days, 7 hours and 43 minutes to rotate on its own axis it is called the “sidereal month.
• The moon’s period of revolution with reference to the sun is about 29.53 days.(29 days,44 minutes and 2.8 seconds).This period is called a “synodic Month“.
• Sea of tranquility”  made of the plain on h rear side of the moon, which always remains dark.
• The highest mountain on the moon is “liebuty mountain” which is 10660 meters high.
• The study of the moon is called “selenology”
• Moon is also known as the “fossil planet”.

### Mars:

• Iron-rich red soil and pinky sky of mars give it the name, Red planet.
• Phoebes and Demos are two satellites of mars.

### Jupiter:

• It is the largest planet of the solar system.
• It is also known as winter Planet as its average temperature is very low(-148 degrees C).

### Saturn:

• It is the second largest planet in the solar system.
• Saturn has bright concentric rings which are made up of ice and ice-covered dust particles which revolve around it.
• Titan” is the largest satellite of Saturn.

### Uranus:

• It is about four times the size of the earth. The planet appears greenish in color because of methane gas present in the atmosphere.
• It was discovered in 1781 by “sir William Hersiel“.
• It is the 7th planet from the sun.
• It was the first planet to have been discovered by the use of a telescope. It is the third biggest planet of the solar system.
• Uranus is extremely cold. having a surface temperature- 1900C and surrounded by 13 rings.
• Namely Zeta(ζ)/R1986U 2,6,5,4, alpha(α), Beta(β), eta(ε), gamma(γ),delta(δ),lamda(λ),epsilon(Ε),nu(ν) and mu(μ).
• The axis of Uranus has large inclination so that it appears to be lying down, hence it bears the name “a planet on its side”

### Neptune:

• It is the 8th planet of solar system.
• The temperature on the surface of Neptune remains low.
• Neptune is very similar to Uranus and can be considered as its twin.
• Neptune is surrounded by methane rings of sub-zero temperature.

### Pluto:

• Pluto had been holding the planetary status since its discovery in 1930 by “Clyde Tom Baugh“.
• Now with the omission of pluto from the solar system, its membership has restricted to eight classical planets.
• Before losing its planetary status on “24th August 2006” pluto was the outermost planet of the solar system.

All these are known as members of Solar System. in text article, we will provide more notes on be prepare well you will get a good score in your examination all the best.