Dear Readers welcome to www.awarenessadda.com . Today we will discuss all important concepts of Indian history. Here is the list of the chronological order of Indian history. We already had known that Indian history was classified into three periods. Today we will discuss the list of events or things in those periods.
- Ancient India. (Pre-historic to AD 700)
- Medieval India.(AD 700 to Ad 1857)
- Modern India. (AD 1857+)
Here is the Index of Indian history which can be explained in next article:
Ancient India ( Pre-historic to AD 700):
There were activities of proto-humans (Homo erectus) in the Indian subcontinent 20 lakh years (2 million years) ago and of Homo sapiens since 70,000 BC. But they were gathers/hunters.
- Ancient India can be studied under other heads like Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic and Chalcolithic period – based on the type of stone/ metal tools people used.
- Most of them are speakers of the Austric, pre-Dravidian languages, such as Munda and Gondvi. Dravidians and Aryans are believed to be immigrants who came later to the sub-continent.
- The first inhabitants of Indian subcontinent might have been tribals like Nagas (North-East), Santhals (East-India), Bhils (Central India), Gonds (Central India), Todas (South India) etc.
Paleolithic Period (2 million BC – 10,000 BC)
- Tools made up of limestone.
- Ostrich Eggs.
- Important Paleolithic sites: Bhimbetka (M.P), Hunsgi, Kurnool Caves, Narmada Valley (Hathnora, M.P), Kaladgi Basin
MesolithicPeriod (10,000 BC – 8,000 BC)
- Major Climatic Change happened.
- Domestication of animals ie Cattle rearing started.
- Microliths found at Brahmagiri (Mysore), Narmada, Vindya, Gujarat.
Neolithic Period (8000 BC – 4,000 BC)
- Agriculture Started.
- Wheel discovered.
- Inamgaon = An early village.
- Important Neolithic Sites : Burzahom(Kashmir), Gufkral(Kashmir), Mehrgarh(Pakistan), Chirand(Bihar), Daojali Hading(Tripura/Assam), Koldihwa(UP), Mahagara(UP), Hallur(AP), Paiyampalli(AP), Maski, Kodekal, Sangana Kaller, Utnur, Takkala Kota.
- NB: Megalithic Sites: Brahmagiri, Adichanallur.
Chalcolithic Period (4000 BC – 1,500 BC)
- Indus Valley Civilization(BC 2700 – BC 1900).
- Copper Age. Can be considered part of Bronze Age. Bronze is made up of combine of copper and tin.
- Also cultures at Brahmagiri, Navada Toli (Narmada region), Mahishadal (W.Bengal), Chirand (Ganga region)
Iron Age (BC 1500 – BC 200)
- Vedic Period (Arrival of Aryans ie. BC 1600 – BC 600) – Nearly 1000 years (Basic books of Hinduism, ie Vedas were composed, might have written down later.)
- Mahajanapadas – Major Civilization after Indus Valley- On banks of river Ganga.
- Magadha empire – Bimbisara of Haryanka Kula.
- Sisunga dyanasy – Kalasoka (Kakavarnin) .
- Nanda empire – Mahapadma-nanda, Dhana-nanda.
- Persian- Greek : Alexander 327 BC.
Mauryan Empire (321-185 BC)
- Chandra Gupta Maurya.
Post Mauryan Kingdoms (Middle Kingdoms):
- Sunga (181-71 BC).
- Kanva (71-27BC).
- Satavahanas (235-100BC) .
- Indo-Greeks, Parthians (19-45AD) .
- Sakas (90BC-150AD).
- South Indian Kingdoms – Chola, Chera, Pandyas (BC 300).
Gupta Kingdom (300AD – 800AD) : Classical Period
- Samudra Gupta (Indian Napoleon).
Post Guptas or Contemporary Guptas
Medieval India (AD 700 – AD 1857)
- AD: 800-1200: Tri partite struggle – Prathiharas, Palas and Rashtrakutas.
- Attack of Muhammed Bin Kassim (AD 712).
- Rise of Islam and Sufism.
- Mohammed Ghazni (AD 1000-27).
- Mohammed Ghori (AD 1175-1206).
Note: Kingdoms of South India during Medieval India – Bhamini and Vijayanagara.
Delhi Sultanate (1206 AD – 1526 AD)
- Slave Dynasty.
- Kilji Dynasty.
- Tuglaq Dynasty.
- Sayyid Dynasty.
- Lodi Dyanasty.
Mughals (AD 1526 – AD 1857)
- Great Mughals.
- Later Mughals.
- An arrival of Europeans.
- Other Kingdoms of North India – Marathas, Sikhs.
Modern India (AD 1857 +)
- First War of Indian Independence (1857).
- Formation of Indian National Congress (1885).
- Formation of Muslim League (1906).
- Non-Co-operation Movement (1920).
- Civil Disobedience Movement (1930).
- Quit India Movement (1942).
- Partition of India (1947).
- Constitutional Development of India (1946 – 1950).
- Economic Development of India.
- Wars – India-Pak – Formation of Bangladesh; India- China.
- New Economic Policy of 1991.
- Nuclear, Space and Defense Development.
In next Article, we will provide detailed notes on above index wise. So keep in touch with Awareness Adda. Thank you.